Specific Learning Disabilities
A specific learning disability is:
- A much poorer ability to achieve in one or more specific academic areas of learning than expected.
- Due to the way the brain is processing information that is specifically related to the area or areas of learning affected.
- Not due to poor hearing, poor eyesight, or lack of educational opportunity.
Dyslexia is a reading/spelling disability. It is the most well known form of a specific learning disability (dys = difficulty with; lexia = words).
Other specific learning disabilities include:
- Dysgraphia: a neurologically based handwriting disability.
- Dyscalculia: a neurologically based mathematical calculating disability.
Dyslexia - A Formal Definition:
- Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin.
- It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition, and by poor spelling and decoding abilities.
- These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction.
- Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.
(As adopted by the International Dyslexia Association 2002)